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Robert Ng Lecturing

Frith and Laird have a long history with teaching and research. Some of the research has been published in peer-review journals and presented at academic conferences.

A selection of the studies our optometrists and practice has been involved in include:

  • 2020/21: Glaucoma Agreement in NZ (GAINZ)- Robert Ng (RN)

  • 2020: Contact lens radiuscopy with corneal topography - (RN)

  • 2019/2020: Contact lenses and albinism. Research conducted at BLENNZ - Hadyn Treanor (HT)
    Article from NZ Optics

  • 2019: Trends in diagnosing and managing glaucoma by optometrists in New Zealand- (RN)

  • 2018: Treatment of acute eye conditions by optometrists (TAECO)- (RN)

  • 2016: The trend of diagnosing and managing eye conditions by general and urgent care practitioners in New Zealand.- (RN)

  • 2016: Custom orthokeratology lens design using Medmont Studio (COMS). Presented at the Cornea and Contact Lens Society Conference, Nelson, NZ- (RN)

  • 2015/2016: The public’s awareness of optometric services in Auckland, New Zealand. Presented at the New Zealand Association of Optometrists Annual Conference, New Plymouth, NZ- (RN)

  • 1993/1994: Improving DOC Track Markers visibility- Knox Laird (KL)

The track marker colour originally used by DOC had very low visibility for males with an inherited colour deficiency. The marker colour and shape were improved increasing marker detection by some 35% and remains the current DOC design. 

Reports available:

Link 1:


  • 1992 - 1998 Nepal: Over a period of eight years was involved in myopia research and provision of glasses to children and adults in Kathmandu and outlying areas.- Mike Frith (MF)

The research associated with this resulted in the publication of five research papers by members of the team.

  • 1991 Development of different refraction between the two eyes. - (KL)

Two studies were undertaken, a cross-sectional study and a confirming longitudinal study. Thousands of optometry records in 3 Auckland optometry practices were searched to obtain the data for individuals who had significantly different degrees of short sight or long-sightedness between the two eyes, or who were long-sighted in one eye and short sighted in the other.


This work was eventually compiled as a textbook chapter: 
Anisometropia. Grosvenor T Flom MC eds. Refractive Anomalies: Research and Clinical Applications. 1991;174–198. Butterworth-Heinemann London.  

  • 1981 Long-term reduction in 3D/stereo sensitivity shown to be part of the post-concussion syndrome.- (KL)

A retrospective study of 50 South Auckland individuals with a history including hospital admission, by ambulance, while unconscious were assessed for 3D or what could be described as stereo sensitivity.  2/3 had reduced sensitivity and surprisingly 1/3 had had one or more subsequent concussions.

This was one of the world's first studies to show a connection between head injury and a long-term measurable psychophysical attribute and was presented as an invited paper to the American Academy of Optometry in Orlando 1981.

  • 1979: Improving the detection rate of the NZ Health Department's School Vision Screening procedure. - (KL)

This study started with a request from the Headmaster Ron Jarvis at Clevedon Primary School who was concerned by the number of children who appeared to have undiagnosed visual problems.

A revised protocol was designed by Knox Laird and taken up by Prof Helen Swarbrick as her MSc research. Children were screened with the revised protocol in 4 Auckland schools revealing that the Department of Health testing procedure was failing to identify about 50% of children with undiagnosed but treatable visual problems.  The children identified by the screened procedure were then more fully tested by a group of Auckland ophthalmologists.  This work resulted in an improvement of the Department's screening procedure as well as several publications, reviewed in a recent article, published by Professor Helen Swarbrick


  • 1978 Proactive lenses for Retinitus Pigmentosa. Paper presented to Australasian Science Congress - (MF)



  • Martis, R. M., Knight, L. J., Acosta, M. L., Black, J., Ng, R., Ji, L. C. L., ... & Lim, J. C. H. (2023). Early onset of age-related changes in the retina of cystine/glutamate antiporter knockout mice. Experimental Eye Research, 227, 109364.

  • Ng, R. J.and Bae, S., (2021). Sports vision. Not just seeing 20/20. NZ J Sports Med, 47(2), pp.80-83.

  • Ng, R. J., & Bae, S. (2020). Retinal artery macroaneurysm without hypertension. Clinical & experimental optometry10.1111/cxo.13098

  • Ng, R., & Gokul, A. (2018). Recurrent disciform keratitis- An optometrist's role (in NZ). Pharma, 2018 (Dec), 9-10. Related URL.
    Ng, R. J. (2018). Computer Software-Assisted Orthokeratology Lens Design The University of Auckland. ResearchSpace@Auckland.

  • URL:

  • Ng, R. (2013). The eyes have it- How to treat allergic eye disease. Allergy Today. Auckland, Allergy New Zealand. Spring 2013.

  • Ng, R. (2012). Keeping an eye on it- Allergic Eye Disease. Allergy Today. Auckland, Allergy New Zealand. Spring 2012.

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